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托福写作--综合写作提升秘诀之摘要

发布时间:2017-01-24 23:25:00 关注量:895次

相信绝大多数备考托福的同学们对于综合写作的基本答题要求和规范都已经了解了,但是,大家是否足够了解摘要写作对于综合写作的重要性呢?今天,我们就抓取这一个重要环节来帮助大家提升综合能力。

这个能力之所以会出现在托福中考察,是因为这个能力与留学生未来的学习任务有密切联系:大学课堂是否能听懂并做到对课堂内容熟练的总结归纳;读完教授布置的阅读材料后能够在课堂上以presentation说出大意;乃至最后的学术论文写作,都会用到这个基本能力。

那么言归正传,托福综合写作中对于阅读和听力材料的归纳汇总,包含如下几个基本要素:
1)内容出处:Listening还是Reading(听力中的教授the professor还是阅读的写作者the author)
2)动词:argue, suggest, point out, indicate, etc.(若内容出处中使用了according to等结构,那么转述动词就不必出现了)
3)具体内容:听力/阅读中的具体观点paraphrase/summary.

同时,我们会在缩写过程中中使用到一些语法结构:如名词性从句
1)宾语从句:The lecturer claims that it is possible to maintain human survival on Venus.
2)主语从句:What the professor challenges is the authenticity of the painting.
3)表语从句:The main argument provided by the lecturer is that this solution is practical.

好了,说了这写技巧,同学们是否已经掌握了基本的摘要写法了呢?让我们看一个TPO42的例子。

原文:Glass is a favored building material for modern architecture, yet it is also very dangerous for wild birds. Because they often cannot distinguish between glass and open air, millions of birds are harmed every year when they try to fly through glass windows There are, however, several solutions that responsible businesses can use to prevent injuries to birds.
归纳汇总:The reading provides several solutions to help wild birds identify glass from the open air.

原文:One-Way Glass
One solution is to replace the regular, clear glass with one-way glass that is transparent in only one direction. The occupants of the building can see out, but birds and others cannot see in. If birds cannot see through a window, they will understand that the glass forms a solid barrier and will not try to fly through it.
归纳汇总:According to the reading, one-way glass, which is only transparent from the inside, can make birds interpret the building as a concrete barrier.

原文:Colorful Designs
A second solution is to paint colorful lines or other designs on regular window glass. For example, a window could have a design of thin stripes painted over the glass. People would still be able to see through the openings in the design where there is no paint, while birds would see the stripes and thus avoid trying to fly through the glass Architects can be encouraged to include colorful painted patterns on glass as part of the general design of buildings.
归纳汇总:It is suggested in the reading that people could add colorful patterns such as stripes over the regular glass to signify warnings.

原文:Magnetic Field
The third solution is to create an artificial magnetic held to guide birds away from buildings. Humans use an instrument called a magnetic compass to determine directions-either north, south, east, or west. Bird research has shown that birds have a natural ability to sense Earth’s magnetic fields; this ability works just like a compass, and it helps birds navigate in the right direction when they fly. A building in a bird flight path can be equipped with powerful electromagnets that emit magnetic signals that steer birds in a direction away from the building.
归纳汇总:Another solution mentioned in the reading is to form an artificial magnetic field, which can navigate birds in the correct direction away from the building.

相信通过上述讲解,同学们已经能够完全掌握summary的写法了。但是写作的提升还要依赖充足的练习,希望大家可以在学习的过程中熟练运用摘要的写法,取得综合写作的好成绩!通途国际英语,沈阳托福培训专业学校,Lorraine老师的这篇文章,希望对大家的备考有所帮助。

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